Research on Armytrophin HGH booster ingredients
Clinical research on Glycine, L-glutamine and Niacin
In a 3-week, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial, Arwert et al investigated the stimulatory effect of an orally administered dietary supplement containing glycine, glutamine and niacin on the GH-IGF-I axis and on mood and cognition, on forty-two healthy subjects (14 men and 28 women, aged 40-76 years). The results were that the supplement ingestion was found to increase serum GH levels with 70% relatively to placebo. Mean GH (+/- SD) increased in this group from 3.23 (+/- 4.78) to 4.67 mU/l (+/- 5.27) (p = 0.03). GH increase was not associated with improvement in mood or memory. Correlation analyses, however, revealed that individual increases in IGF-I, but not GH, were associated with improved memory and vigor. It is concluded that an oral mixture of glycine, glutamine and niacin can enhance GH secretion in healthy middle-aged and elderly subjects.
Clinical research on Glycine
In one study, Kasai et al demonstrated glycine’s ability to stimulate GH secretion. When 6.75 grams of glycine was administered to19 normal subjects and 12 subjects with partial gastrectomy, growth hormone levels significantly increased for 3 hours, reaching a maximum of 3 to 4 times that of baseline at 2 hours (P < 0.001). The facts demonstrated that glycine is one of the stimulatory agents inducing the pituitary gland to secrete GH.
Clinical research on L-Glutamine
Welbourne administrated an oral glutamine load to nine healthy subjects to determine the effect on plasma glutamine, bicarbonate, and circulating GH concentrations. Two grams glutamine were dissolved in a cola drink and ingested over a 20-mm period 45 mm after a light breakfast. Forearm venous blood samples were obtained at zero time and at 30-mm intervals for 90 mm and compared with time controls obtained I wk earlier. Eight of nine subjects responded to the oral glutamine load with an increase in plasma glutamine at 30 and 60 mm before returning to the control value at 90 mm. Ninety minutes after the glutamine administration circulating plasma bicarbonate concentration was elevated. Likewise, growth hormone concentration was 4.3-fold higher than the time control 90-mm value. These findings demonstrate that a surprisingly small oral glutamine load is capable of elevating alkaline reserves as well as plasma growth hormone. Bruno G. A Guide to Complementary Treatments for Diabetes. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publisher; 2010. This claim is based upon the use of a low-glycemic index diet, as outlined in “Appendix A: Following a Low-Glycemic Index Diet” in A Guide to Complementary Treatments for Diabetes. This product provides a reprint of Appendix A with permission of the publisher.
Human growth hormone (GH) is an anabolic hormone with widespread actions, GH in post-natal growth and development butmany of which are mediated via the production of insulin-like growth factors, IGF-1 and 2, that are synthesized by the liver and in target tissues. In childhood, GH plays an important role in post-natal growth and development. In adulthood, GH peforms other functions including the increase of lean body mass and the reduction adiposity via its lipolytic effects. According to Veldhuis et al, the amplitude of GH pulses is reduced with aging both in men and women, and the amplitude of pulsatile growth hormone release (the magnitude of the growth hormone pulse) in declines by 50% every seven years after 18–25 years of age. Veldhuis et al have also shown that individuals of any age who are moderately to markedly obese have profound suppression of mean 24-h serum GH concentrations. In Hormone Research, Harman and Blackman indicated that evidence to date is consistent with the hypothesis that age-related decreases in hormone balance and regulation, including decreases in GH, contribute to the concomitant reductions in lean body mass (LBM), muscle strength and cardiac endurance, and increases in body fat observed with normal aging. Moltich et al has shown that reduced GH levels are associated with truncal obesity with a relative decrease in muscle mass and, in many instances, decreased energy and quality of life. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, Albert and Mooradian demonstrated that self-administred, low dose recombinant human GH helped reduce body fat in obese men and women (P = 0.04), and helped sustain that loss at 9 months (P = 0.02). This research suggests that an increase in GH may help contribute toward a reduction in body fat over time.
Clinical research on Alpha-GPC
Using a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover design, seven men (mean ± SD age, height, weight, body fat: 30.1 ± 7.3 y, 179.2 ± 7.4 cm, 87.3 ± 11.6 kg, 18.1 ± 5.9%) with at least two years of resistance training experience ingested 600 mg alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine (A-GPC) (as AlphaSize™) or a placebo 90-minutes prior to completing 6 sets × 10 repetitions of Smith Machine squats at 70% of their pre-determined 1-repetition maximum. At 30-minutes post-exercise, resting metabolic rate (RMR) and respiratory exchange ratio (RER) were measured with indirect calorimetry to assess post-exercise caloric expenditure and carbohydrate and fat oxidation, respectively. Immediately following RMR and RER measurements, subjects performed three sets of bench press throws at 50% of their pre-determined 1-repetition maximum to assess peak force, peak power, and rate of force development. All trials were performed after an overnight fast, a 48-hour abstention from intense exercise, and during the same time of day to minimize diurnal variation. Serum samples were obtained prior to exercise and again 0, 5, 15, 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes post-exercise. Hormone concentrations were analyzed in duplicate by Quest Diagnostics® via immunoassay. Statistical evaluation of the data was accomplished using dependent t-tests (peak force, peak power, rate of force development) and repeated measures ANOVA (GH, RMR, RER). Differences were considered “significant” at P ≤ 0.05. The results were that compared to baseline (pre) values, peak GH increased 44-fold during A-GPC (from 0.19 ± 0.06 to 8.4 ± 2.1 ng/mL) vs. 2.6-fold during placebo (from 1.9 ± 0.8 to 5.0 ± 4.8 ng/mL, P < 0.03). In addition, peak bench press force was 14% greater in A-GPC (933 ± 89 N) vs. placebo (818 ± 77 N, P < 0.02). Trends toward higher peak bench press power (P < 0.13) and lower post-exercise RER (P < 0.12) were noted in the A-GPC trial. Researchers concluded that a single 600 mg dose of A-GPC (as AlphaSize™), when administered 90 minutes prior to resistance exercise, increases post-exercise serum GH and peak bench press force. In contrast, A-GPC had no statistically significant effect on peak power, rate of force development, RMR, or cardiovascular hemodynamics (i.e., heart rate and blood pressure). Growth hormone (GH) secretion is decreased during aging in humans and in rodents. This decrease may be due to increased hypothalamic somatostatin release, which is inhibited by cholinergic agonists, or to decreased secretion of growth hormone releasing hormone (GHRH). Alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine (alpha-GFC) is a putative acetylcholine precursor used in the treatment of cognitive disorders in the elderly. In order to learn what effect alpha-GFC had on GH secretion, GHRH was given to young and old human volunteers, with or without the addition of alpha-GFC. GH secretion was greater in the younger subjects than in the old individuals, and both groups had a greater GH response to the GHRH+alpha-GFC than to GHRH alone. The potentiating effect of alpha-GFC on GH secretion was more pronounced in the elderly subjects. These findings confirm the observation that aged individuals respond less well to GHRH than younger subjects, and provides further evidence that increased cholinergic tone enhances GH release. In a double-blind trial, nineteen probable Alzheimer’s patients older than 60 years received GPC 1000 mg i.m. or a placebo once daily for 3 months (12 weeks). In addition to neuropsychological assessment, blood hormone levels—cortisol, ACTH, prolactin, growth hormone (GH)—were measured, at baseline and at 3 months. The SCAG total score was significantly improved by GPC over the placebo, at 3 months; the subscales for cognitive disturbances and apathy/isolation also showed significant improvement. Interestingly, GPC significantly reduced plasma cortisol and ACTH levels over the placebo, but not prolactin. Growth hormone levels were significantly increased over baseline at 12 weeks; the placebo group had fallen below baseline. The investigators that GPC could be useful for down-regulating HPAA (hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis) over-activation, which can contribute to neurodegenerative progression. The increase in GH was clinically meaningful.
Clinical research on Arginine and Ornithine
Note: Despite their use in formulations for this purpose, there is no published clinical data showing that arginine AKG and ornithine AKG increases growth hormone (GH) levels. Some data shows that they might help reduce muscle protein breakdown in burn victims, but that was at very high doses (20 grams +) and when administered intravenously. Ordinary arginine and ornithine does have published clinical data showing effectiveness in increasing GH levels, but the lowest doses is 1000 mg of each at the same time. If you want to change this formula to provide 1000 mg each of arginine and ornithine, it can be done but the cost of the product will increase significantly as will the number of tablets required to be taken in a day. In any case, the study summaries below describe increases in GH with arginine and ornithine. Since this is not the same form or amount in this formula, it doesn’t really support the claims. Nevertheless, they have been included to offer some rationalization for updating the formula with arginine AKG and ornithine AKG. Eighteen adult males took part in a double-blind study investigating the effects of weight training and dietary supplementation of the amino acids L-arginine and L-ornithine (500 mg of each, twice daily, five times per week) on body mass, body fat and composite body girth. The result showed significant differences in body mass and body fat (p < 0.01) in the group taking amino acids as compared to the group taking placebos. There was no significant difference in composite body girth. Resistance exercise with a diet supplemented with arginine and ornithine will reduce body mass and body fat in adult males. Twenty-two adult males participated in a 5 week progressive strength training program. One half the subjects received the amino acids L-arginine and L-ornithine and the other half, a placebo. The study used a double blind protocol so that subjects as well as investigators had no knowledge of which substances were being administered. Dosages amounted to 1 gram each of L-arginine and L-ornithine, and 600 mg of calcium and 1 gram of Vitamin C as placebos. These supplements were taken orally for a total of 25 administrations. Following the short term strength program using progressively high intensities, tests were taken for total strength (TS), lean body mass (LBM) and urinary hydroxyproline (UH). The results from ANOVA showed that subjects who were taking the arginine-ornithine combination scored significantly higher in TS and LBM (p less than .05), and significantly lower in UH (p less than .05), than subjects on placebos. It was concluded that arginine and ornithine taken in prescribed doses can, in conjunction with a high intensity strength training program, increase TS and LBM in a relatively short period of time. Arginine and ornithine also aid in recovery from chronic stress by quelling tissue breakdown as evidenced by lower UH levels. This placebo-controlled double-blind study was designed to investigate the effect of arginine and ornithine (arg and orn) supplementation (3000 mg arg and 2200 mg orn twice daily) during 3-week heavy-resistance training on serum growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor-1/insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (GH/IGF-1/IGFBP-3), testosterone, cortisol, and insulin levels in experienced strength-trained athletes. The subjects were randomly divided between a placebo group (n = 8) and the l-Arg/l-Orn-supplemented group (n = 9), and performed pre and posttraining standard exercise tests with the same absolute load, which consisted of the same exercise schedule as that applied in the training process. Fasting blood samples were obtained at rest, 2 minutes after the cessation of the strength exercise protocol, and after 1 hour of recovery. The resting concentrations of the investigated hormones and IGFBP-3 did not differ significantly between the study groups. In response to exercise test, all the hormones were elevated (p < 0.05) at both time points. Significant increases (p < 0.05) were observed in both GH and IGF-1 serum levels after arg and orn supplementation at both time points, whereas a significant decrease was seen in IGFBP-3 protein during the recovery period. Because there was no between-group difference in the remaining hormone levels, it appears that the GH/IGF-1/IGFBP-3 complex may be the major player in muscle tissue response to short-term resistance training after arg and orn supplementation.
 Arwert LI, Deijen JB, Drent ML. Effects of an oral mixture containing glycine, glutamine and niacin on memory, GH and IGF-I secretion in middle-aged and elderly subjects. Nutr Neurosci. 2003;6(5):269-75.  Kasai K, Kobayashi M, Shimoda SI. Stimulatory effect of glycine on human growth hormone secretion. Metabolism. 1978;27(2):201-8.  Welbourne TC. Increased Plasma Bicarbonate and Growth Hormone After an Oral Glutamine Load. Am J Clin Nutr. 1995;61(5):1058-61.  Nussey S, Whitehead S. Endocrinology: An Integrated Approach. Oxford: BIOS Scientific Publishers; 2001. Retrieved November 28, 2011 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK27/#A1312.  Nussey S, Whitehead S. Endocrinology: An Integrated Approach. Oxford: BIOS Scientific Publishers; 2001. Retrieved November 28, 2011 from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK27/#A1312.  Veldhuis JD, Iranmanesh A, Weltman A. Elements in the pathophysiology of diminished growth hormone (GH) secretion in aging humans. Endocrine. 1997;7(1):41-8.  Harman SM, Blackman MR. The Effects of Growth Hormone and Sex Steroid on Lean Body Mass, Fat Mass, Muscle Strength, Cardiovascular Endurance and Adverse Events in Healthy Elderly Women and Men. Horm Res. 2003;60:121-124.  Molitch ME, Clemmons DR, Malozowski S, Merriam GR, Shalet SM, Vance ML. Evaluation and treatment of adult growth hormone deficiency: an Endocrine Society Clinical Practice Guideline. J Clin Endocrino Metab. 2006;91(5):1621–34.  Albert SG, Mooradian AD. Low-dose recombinant human growth hormone as adjuvant therapy to lifestyle modifications in the management of obesity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2004;89(2):695-701.  Ziegenfuss T, Landis J, Hofheins J. Acute supplementation with alpha-glycerylphosphorylcholine augments growth hormone response to, and peak force production during, resistance exercise. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition 2008, 5(Suppl 1):P15.  Ceda GP, Ceresini G, Denti L, et al. alpha-Glycerylphosphorylcholine administration increases the GH responses to GHRH of young and elderly subjects. Horm Metab Res. 1992;24(3):119-21.  Schettini G, et al. Effect of choline alfoscerate in elderly patients with primary degenerative dementia. Le Basi Raz Ter 1993;23 (Suppl. 3):108.  Elam RP. Morphological changes in adult males from resistance exercise and amino acid supplementation. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 1988;28:35-39.  Elam RP. Effect of arginine and ornithine on strength, lean body mass and urinary hydroxyproline in adult males. J Sports Nutr. 1989;29:52-56.  Zajac A, Poprzecki S, Zebrowska A, Chalimoniuk M, Langfort J. Arginine and ornithine supplementation increases growth hormone and insulin-like growth factor-1 serum levels after heavy-resistance exercise in strength-trained athletes. J Strength Cond Res. 2010 Apr;24(4):1082-90.